Category - Biosphere
Earth is the only planet known to exhibit and sustain life. Biosphere started around 3.5 billion years ago, encompasses all the parts of Earth’s crust (lithosphere), water (hydrosphere) and atmosphere that harbor life. Solar radiation, seasonality, air circulation, precipitation, ocean currents and topography are among the various factors that influence the pattern and distribution of life within biosphere including human life. However, unregulated exploitation of land and water resources and the human intervention of biogeochemical processes have resulted into the emergence of new problems and challenges which are now largely evident in the form of climate change. As a consequence, biosphere is experiencing noticeable transformations conferring threats to the existence of many species and the socio-economics of human settlements, Pakistan being no exception. Major challenges which the region faces relate to food production and availability of usable water. In this section, we will discuss atmospheric challenges to Pakistan and the region along with food and water management issues.